Jake Walter

Jake pic
Jake Walter

State Seismologist, Oklahoma Geological Survey, University of Oklahoma
Affiliate Faculty, School of Geosciences, University of Oklahoma

Ph.D., Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz (2012)
B.A., Geology, University of Colorado at Boulder (2006)

OU contact info: jwalter at ou.edu / 405-325-8497

Jake's CV

Publications on Google Scholar


My research interests include ice sheet and glacier dynamics, tectonic tremor and slow slip, earthquakes, seismic triggering of earthquakes and other phenomena. I conduct research in Oklahoma, Texas, Antarctica, Costa Rica, Greenland, and Alaska.

Geophysical Equipment: I maintain a pool of broadband seismometers, active-source seismic gear, and other geophysical equipment for use in studies around the world.

Prospective Students: Please contact me if you are interested in becoming a graduate student.

Oklahoma seismicity (from the OGS seismic network)


Induced seismicity

In Oklahoma, Texas, and other states throughout the US, earthquakes have been closely associated (in time and space) with oil and gas activities. Lately, we have been trying to identify when seismicity occurs and work with geologists and reservoir modelers to understand the conditions under which it occurs.
Ice sheet

Glaciology and passive seismology in polar regions

I have active (and past) projects investigating various aspects of polar regions and dynamic glaciers in Greenland, Antarctica, and Alaska. We apply some of the seismological tools developed for investigating the solid earth processes to dynamic areas of these regions.

Slow slip and tremor

I was previously involved in an NSF-funded project to study subduction zone processes at the Costa Rica Nicoya Peninsula. A combination of continuous GPS and seismic data allowed us to study ocean-continent plate collision at various timescales and spatial scales. Volcanoes are the result water-enriched sediments trapped in the downgoing slab. I am involved in trying to organize a combined seismic-GPS project in the Western Solomon Islands that would build scientific capacity there.


Email me if you do not have access or have trouble accessing any of the papers - happy to email a PDF


51. Morency, C., K. Kroll, J. I. Walter, and E. Matzel (in prep), Virtual seismometer method for full moment tensor inversion and fault orientation analysis


50. Kibikas, W., A. Ghassemi, J. I. Walter, B. Carpenter (in review), Experimental Velocity Anisotropy in Crystalline Basement Rocks of the Midcontinental USA, Journal of Applied Geophysics

49. Allen, B., K. Murray, P. Ogwari, F. Suriamin, J. I. Walter, and N. W. Hayman (in revision), Pressure monitoring of disposal reservoirs in North-Central Oklahoma: implications for seismicity and geostorage, JGR-Solid Earth

48. Regmi, N., J. I. Walter, J. Jiang, A. Orban, and N. W. Hayman (in revision), Mass movement processes and hazards in the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains

47. Ho, L. M., J. I. Walter, S. E. Hansen, and J. L. Sanchez Roldan (in revision), Evaluating Automated Seismic Event Detection Approaches: An Application to Victoria Land, East Antarctica, JGR Machine Learning


46. Ng, R., X. Chen, N. Nakata, and J. I. Walter (2024), Precise relative magnitude measurement improves fracture characterization during hydraulic fracturing, Geophysical Journal International, 238(2), 1040–1052, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggae204. (link) (pdf)

45. Karplus, M. S., N. Nakata, G. Kaip, S. Harder, L. F. Gonzalez, A. Booth, E. Smith, S. Veitch, J. I. Walter, P. Christoffersen, and S. Tulaczyk (2024), Signal characteristics of surface seismic explosive sources near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet divide, Journal of Glaciology, (link) (pdf)

44. Murray, K. E., C. Brooks, J. I. Walter, and P. O. Ogwari (2023), Oklahoma’s coordinated response to more than a decade of elevated seismicity, GSA Special Paper 559 in Recent Seismicity in the Southern Midcontinent, USA: Scientific, Regulatory, and Industry Responses, https://doi.org/10.1130/2023.2559. (link) (pdf)

43. Ogwari, P., J. I. Walter, X. Chen, A. Thiel, F. Ferrer, and I. Woelfel (2022), Distinguishing Unique Earthquakes with Overlapping Signals in Oklahoma, Seismol. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1785/0220220065. (link) (pdf)

42. Carmichael, J. D., A. D. Thiel, P. S. Blom, J. I. Walter, F. K. D. Dugick, S. J. Arrowsmith, and C. G. Carr (2021), Persistent, “Mysterious” Seismoacoustic Signals Reported in Oklahoma State during 2019, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., doi: 10.1785/0120210145. (link) (pdf)

41. Li, C., Z. Peng, J. A. Chaput, J. I. Walter, and R. C. Aster (2021), Remote Triggering of Icequakes at Mt. Erebus, Antarctica by Large Teleseismic Earthquakes, Seismol. Res. Lett. 92, 2866–2875, doi: 10.1785/0220210027. (link)

40. Ortega-Romo, A. D., J. I. Walter, X. Chen, and B. M. Carpenter (2021), Spatially distinct tectonic zones across Oklahoma inferred from shear wave splitting, Seismol. Res. Lett., doi:10.1785/0220200237.

39. Patel, S., F. Kolawole, J. I. Walter, X. Chen, and K. J. Marfurt (2021), Seismic illumination of small-offset seismogenic faults, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma, Interpretation, 9(2), 1-50, https://doi.org/10.1190/int-2020-0135.1.

38. Walter, J. I. , P. Ogwari, A. Thiel, F. Ferrer, and I. Woelfel (2021), easyQuake: Putting machine learning to work for your regional seismic network or local earthquake study, Seismological Research Letters, 92(1), 555-563, https://doi.org/10.1785/0220200226. (link) (pdf) (code)

37. Behm, M., J. I. Walter, D. Binder, F. Cheng, B. Kulessa, K. Langley, P. Limpach, S. Mertl, W. Schöner, M. Tamstorf, and G. Weyss (2020), Seismic Characterization of a Rapidly-Rising Jökulhlaup Cycle at the A.P. Olsen Ice Cap, NE-Greenland, Journal of Glaciology, 66(256), 329–347, doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/jog.2020.9. (link)

36. Qin, Y., X. Chen, J. I. Walter, J. Haffener, D. T. Trugman, B. M. Carpenter, and M. Weingarten (2019), Deciphering the stress state of seismogenic faults in Oklahoma and southern Kansas based on high-resolution stress maps, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, doi:10.1029/2019JB018377. (link) (pdf)

35. Frohlich, C. F., C. Hayward, J. Rosenblit, C. Aiken, P. Hennings, A. Savvaidis, C. Lemons, E. Horne, J. I. Walter, and H. R. DeShon (2020), Onset and cause of increased seismic activity near Pecos, West Texas, USA from observations at the Lajitas TXAR Seismic Array, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, doi:10.1029/2019JB017737. (link) (pdf)

34. Walter, J. I., P. Ogwari, A. Thiel, F. Ferrer, I. Woelfel, J. C. Chang, A. P. Darold, and A. A. Holland (2020), The Oklahoma Geological Survey Statewide Seismic Network, Seismol. Res. Lett., 91 (2A): 611–621, doi:10.1785/0220190211. (link) (pdf)

33. Regmi, N., and J. I. Walter (2020), Detailed Mapping of Shallow Landslides in Eastern Oklahoma and Potential Triggering by Oklahoma Earthquakes, Geomorphology, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2019.05.026. (link) (pdf)

32. Huang, G. D., A. Savvaidis, and J. I. Walter (2019), Mapping the 3-D Lithospheric Structure of the Greater Permian Basin in West Texas and Southeast New Mexico for Earthquake Monitoring, J. Geophys. Res., 124, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB018351. (link) (pdf)

31. Rosson, Z., J. I. Walter, T. Goebel, and X. Chen (2019), Narrow spatial aftershock zones for induced earthquake sequences in Oklahoma Geophys. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083562. (Open Access link) (pdf)

30. Goebel, T., Z. Rosson, E. E. Brodsky, and J. I. Walter (2019), Aftershock deficiency of induced earthquake sequences during rapid mitigation efforts in Oklahoma, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 522: 135-143, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.06.036. (Open Access link) (pdf)

29. Skoumal, R. J., J. O. Kaven, and J. I. Walter (2019), Characterizing seismogenic fault structures in Oklahoma using a relocated template matched catalog, Seismol. Res. Lett., https://doi.org/10.1785/0220190045. (link) (pdf)

28. Vore, M. E., T. C. Bartholomaus, J. P. Winberry, J. I. Walter, and J. M. Amundson (2019), Seismic tremor reveals spatial organization and temporal changes of subglacial water system, J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surface, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JF004819. (link) (pdf)

27. Walton, M. A. L., E. C. Roland, J. I. Walter, S. P. S. Gulick, and P. J. Dotray (2019), Seismic velocity structure across the 2013 Craig, Alaska rupture from aftershock tomography: Implications for seismogenic conditions, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 507: 94-104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.11.021. (link) (pdf)

26. Walter, J. I., C. Frohlich, and T. Borgfeldt (2018), Natural and induced earthquakes in the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles, Seismol. Res. Lett., 89 (6): 2437-2446, https://doi.org/10.1785/0220180105. (link) (pdf)

25. Barcheck, G. C., S. Tulaczyk, S. Y. Schwartz, J. I. Walter, and J. P. Winberry (2018), Implications of basal micro-earthquakes and tremor for ice stream mechanics: stick-slip basal sliding and till erosion, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 486: 54-60, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2017.12.046. (link) (pdf)

24. Scales, M. M., H. R. DeShon, M. B. Magnani, J. I. Walter, L. Quinones, T. L. Pratt, and M. J. Hornbach (2017), A Decade of Induced Slip on the Causative Fault of the 2015 MW 4.0 Venus Earthquake, Northeast Johnson County, Texas, J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth, 122, doi:10.1002/2017JB014460. (link) (pdf)

23. Goebel, T. H. W., J. I. Walter, K. Murray, and E. E. Brodsky (2017), Comment on “How will induced seismicity in Oklahoma respond to decreased saltwater injection rates?” by C. Langenbruch and M. D. Zoback, Science Advances, 3:8, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1700441. (link) (pdf)

22. Chen, X., C. Pennington, J. Haffener, J. C. Chang, X. He, Z. Zhan, S. Ni, and J. I. Walter (2017), The Pawnee earthquake as a result of the interplay among injection, faults and foreshocks, Scientific Reports, 7: 4945, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-04992-z. (link) (pdf)

21. Walter, J. I., J. C. Chang, and P. J. Dotray (2017), Foreshock seismicity suggests gradual differential stress increase in the months prior to the 3 September 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake, Seismol. Res. Lett., 88(4), 1-8, doi:10.1785/0220170007. (link) (pdf)

20. Yao, D., J. I. Walter, X. Meng, T. E. Hobbs, Z. Peng, A. V. Newman, S. Y. Schwartz, and M. Protti (2017), Detailed Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Microseismicity and Repeating Earthquakes following the 2012 Mw7.6 Nicoya Earthquake, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JB013632. (link)

19. Holland, D. M., D. Voytenko, K. Christianson, T. H. Dixon, M. J. Mei, B. R. Parizek, I. Vaňková, R. T. Walker, J. I. Walter, K. Nicholls, and D. Holland (2016), An intensive observation of calving at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, Oceanography 29(4):46–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2016.98. (link) (pdf)

18. Frohlich, C. F., H. R. DeShon, B. W. Stump, C. Hayward, M. J. Hornbach, and J. I. Walter (2016), Reply to "Comment on 'A historical review of induced earthquakes in Texas' by Steve Everley", Seismol. Res. Lett., 87, 1381-1383, doi:10.1785/0220160148. (link) (pdf)

17. Frohlich, C. F., H. R. DeShon, B. W. Stump, C. Hayward, M. J. Hornbach, and J. I. Walter (2016), A historical review of induced earthquakes in Texas, Seismol. Res. Lett., 87(4), doi: 10.1785/0220160016. (link) (pdf)

16. Gimbert, F., V. C. Tsai, J. M. Amundson, T. C. Bartholomaus, and J. I. Walter (2016), Sub-seasonal changes in pressure, geometry, and sediment transport observed in subglacial channels, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 3786–3794, doi:10.1002/2016GL068337. (link) (pdf)

15. Walter, J. I., P. J. Dotray, C. Frohlich, and J. F. W. Gale (2016), Earthquakes in northwest Louisiana and the Texas-Louisiana border possibly induced by energy resource activities within the Haynesville shale play, Seismol. Res. Lett., 87(2A), doi:10.1785/0220150193. (link) (pdf)

14. Walter, J. I., Z. Peng, X. Meng, A. V. Newman, S. Y. Schwartz, and J. Marino Protti (2015), Far-field triggering of foreshocks near the nucleation zone of the 5 September 2012 (Mw 7.6) Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica earthquake, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 431: 75-86, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.09.017. (link) (pdf)

13. Bartholomaus, T. C., J. M. Amundson, J. I. Walter, S. O’Neel, M. E. West, and C. F. Larsen (2015), Subglacial discharge at tidewater glaciers revealed by seismic tremor, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064590. (Open Access link)

12. Malservisi, R., S. Y. Schwartz, N. Voss, M. Protti, V. Gonzalez, T. H. Dixon, Y. Jiang, A. V. Newman, J. Richardson, J. I. Walter, and D. Voyenko (2015), Multiscale postseismic behavior on a megathrust: The 2012 Nicoya earthquake, Costa Rica, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 16, doi:10.1002/2015GC005794. (link)

11. Aiken, C., J. Zimmerman, Z. Peng, and J. I. Walter (2015), Triggered seismic events along the eastern Denali fault in northwest Canada following the 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii, 2013 Mw 7.5 Craig, and two Mw>8.5 teleseismic earthquakes, Bull. of the Seismol. Soc. of Am., 105, no. 2B, doi: 10.1785/0120140156. (link)

10. Frohlich, C. F., J. I. Walter, and J. F. W. Gale (2015), Analysis of transportable array (USArray) data shows earthquakes are scarce near injection wells in the Williston Basin, 2008-2011, Seismol. Res. Lett., 86, 492-499. (link)

9. Walter, J. I., I. Svelitsky, J. Fineberg, S. Tulaczyk, E. E. Brodsky, C. G. Barcheck, and S. P. Carter (2015), Rupture speed dependence on initial stress profiles: Insights from glacier and laboratory stick-slip, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 411: 112-120, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.214.11.025. (Open Access link) (pdf)

8. Peng, Z., J. I. Walter, R. Aster, D. A. Wiens, S. Anandakrishnan, and A. Nyblade (2014), Antarctic icequakes triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile, Nature Geosci., 7, 677–681, doi:10.1038/ngeo2212. (link)

7. Protti, M., V. Gonzalez, A. V. Newman, T. H. Dixon, S. Y. Schwartz, J. S. Marshall, L. Feng, J. I. Walter, R. Malservisi, and S. E. Owen (2014), Nicoya earthquake rupture anticipated by geodetic measurement of the locked plate interface, Nature Geosci., 7: 117-121, doi:10.1038/ngeo2038. (link)

6. Walter, J. I., S. Y. Schwartz, M. Protti, and V. Gonazalez (2013), The synchronous occurrence of shallow tremor and very low frequency earthquakes offshore of the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 1517-1522, doi:10.1002/grl.50213. (link (pdf)

5. Horgan, H. J., S. Anandakrishnan, R. W. Jacobel, K. Christianson, R. B. Alley, D. S. Heeszel, S. Picotti, and J. I. Walter (2012), Subglacial Lake Whillans - Part 1: Imaging a Shallow Active Reservoir Beneath a West Antarctic Ice Stream, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 331: 201-209.

4. Walter, J. I., J. E. Box, S. Tulaczyk, E. E. Brodsky, I. M. Howat, Y. Ahn, and A. Brown (2012), Oceanic mechanical forcing of the dynamics of a marine-terminating Greenland glacier, Ann. Glaciol., 53(60 Pt 2) (link) (pdf)

3. Walter, J. I., E. E. Brodsky, S. Tulaczyk, S. Y. Schwartz, and R. Pettersson (2011), Transient slip events from near-field seismic and geodetic data on a glacier fault, Whillans Ice Plain, West Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F01021, doi:10.1029/2010JF001754. (link) (pdf)

2. Walter, J. I., S. Y. Schwartz, J. M. Protti, and V. Gonzalez (2011), Persistent tremor within the northern Costa Rica seismogenic zone, Geophys. Res. Lett, 38, L01307, doi:10.1029/2010GL045586. (link) (pdf)

1. Outerbridge, K. C., T. H. Dixon, S. Y. Schwartz, J. I. Walter, M. Protti, V. Gonzalez, J. Biggs, M. Thorwart, and W. Rabbel (2010), A tremor and slip event on the Cocos-Caribbean subduction zone as measured by a GPS and seismic network on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, J. Geophys. Res., 115, B10408, doi:10.1029/2009JB006845.


The influence of small stresses on the dynamics of glaciers and subduction zones (link)


Geological Carbon Management in Oklahoma, OGS Fact Sheet No.1, Oklahoma Geological Survey, 2021 (link)

White paper report on: Convergence Accelerator Workshop on atmospheric carbon reduction (link)

Landslide Hazards in Eastern Oklahoma Mountains (link)

Preliminary Soil Amplification Map of Oklahoma (OGS GM-41) (link)


Current group members
Past group members
Raymond Ng - PhD Graduate at OU (2023)
Kaycee Schaper - MS Graduate at OU (2022)
Zach Rosson - MS Graduate at OU (2019)
Taylor Borgfeldt - MS Graduate at UT (2017) - now at GSI Environmental, Inc.



Instructor - OU Geophysics 4553 - Introduction to Seismology (Spring 2024)

Co-instructor - OU Geophysics 5970 - Frontiers in Geophysics

Co-instructor - OU Geophysics 5970 - Special graduate seminar in Geophysics

Co-instructor - OU Geophysics 4970 - Introduction to Seismology (Spring 2018)


Getting raw data from digitizer to Antelope and start finding earthquakes (Antelope Tutorial)

Remove seismometer instrument response using SAC


Many newer scripts and python stuff on Github

Older stuff:
This script pulls events that have been cataloged in Antelope, creates a whole directory of continuous waveforms in SAC format. Then, by reading the Antelope tables, it cuts continuous waveform data to make event-based waveforms. Here it is and be sure to change the variables in the script itself - getcontinuous_getevents_v1.sh. The script calls both this tosac_from_msd_db2sac_v1.pl and this sacarrivaltime_fromcont_v1.pl

Script to cut waveforms from continuous SAC files based on Antelope database phase/event picks - CutWaveforms_tomodd.bash

Script to calculate cross-correlation coefficient between different events between waveforms at the same station - cross_correlation_relocation_v2.bash

Combine the output from the cross_correlation_relocation_v2.bash script to output in a format recognizable by tomoDD - cc2dt_v2.pl

Teachers: I am available to come to your classroom or school-wide assembly for an assembly and talk about earthquakes, Antarctica, being a scientist, or geoscience, in general. I am also available to Skype to your classroom for any period of time or answer questions for special projects. Email me.


Past outreach events

Byng Elementary School, April 2024
Ada Rock Club, April 2024
Oklahoma School of Science and Mathematics, November 2023
St Eugene Catholic School, Oklahoma City, OK, November 2023
Stillwater Middle School, Stillwater, OK, February 2023
Casady School, Oklahoma City, OK, February 2023
Union City Middle School, Union City, OK, January 2023
Midwest City Middle School, Midwest City, OK, December 2022
St Eugene Catholic School, Oklahoma City, OK, December 2022
Wilson Elementary School (Virtual), Denton, TX, February 2021
Holy Trinity Lutheran School (Virtual), Oklahoma City, OK, April 2020
Thelma Parks Elementary, Oklahoma City, OK, November 2019
Taft Middle School, Oklahoma City, OK, November 2019
Tishomingo High School, Tishomingo, OK, November 2019
Temple Middle/High School, Temple, OK, November 2019
Eisenhower Elementary, Norman, OK, October 2019
Senior Center, Edmond, OK, August 2019
Teen program, Southwest Oklahoma City Library, July 2019
STEM Middle School summer camp, Hartshorne, OK, June 2019
Jones Academy Elementary School, Hartshorne, OK, March 2019
Norman Science Cafe, Norman Central Library, OK, March 2019
Wilson Elementary, Norman, OK, March 2019
Will Rogers Elementary, Putnam City, OK, February 2019
Timber Creek Elementary, Moore, OK, January 2019
Geology and Geophysics Colloquium, “Life after Grad School,” Norman, OK January 2019
Frontier Elementary, Edmond, OK, November 2018
Public talk, Norman Frontier West Public Library, October 2018
Public talk, Enid First Baptist Church, August 2018
Skype with a Scientist, Jenks Elementary School, Jenks, OK, May 2018
Cross Timbers Elementary, Earthquakes in Oklahoma!, Tecumseh, OK, March 2018
What is an earthquake? What is a scientist? Various earthquake activities, Jones Academy STEM Summer Science Camp visit to OU and Norman, June 2018
Raspberry Shake program training to teachers, Enid, OK, June 2018
Public talk, Okmulgee Lions Club, June 2018
Earthquake risk in Oklahoma, Ready Business Quakesmart Workshop, Midwest City, OK, October 2017
Earthquake risk in Oklahoma, Oklahoma County Local Emergency Planning Committee Tabletop Exercise, OK, October 2017
Earthquake risk in Oklahoma, East Oklahoma County Rotary Club, Choctaw, OK, October 2017
McKinley Elementary, Great Central US Shakeout – What to do in an Earthquake?, Norman, OK, October 2017
What is an earthquake? What is a scientist? Various earthquake activities, Jones Academy STEM Summer Science Camp, Hartshorne, OK, July 2017

This is an animation of Arbuckle monthly injection volumes (OCC: ftp://ftp.occeweb.com/OG_DATA/Dly1012d.ZIP) and Oklahoma earthquakes (http://ogs.ou.edu). OKearthquakes

This is an animation of just the seismicity (M2.0+) but it is cleaner - click for standalone view

Webinar in October 2019 on Oklahoma earthquakes and seismic hazard